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    Who we are
    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is a telescope specially designed to detect X-ray emission from very hot regions of the Universe such as exploded stars, clusters of galaxies, and matter around black holes. Because X-rays are absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, Chandra must orbit above it, up to an altitude of 139,000 km (86,500 mi) in space. The Smithsonian's Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, hosts the Chandra X-ray Center which operates the satellite, processes the data, and distributes it to scientists around the world for analysis. The Center maintains an extensive public web site about the science results and an education program.

    What we do
    Chandra carries four very sensitive mirrors nested inside each other. The energetic X-rays strike the insides of the hollow shells and are focussed onto electronic detectors at the end of the 9.2- m (30-ft.) optical bench. Depending on which detector is used, very detailed images or spectra of the cosmic source can be made and analyzed.

    What we are excited about
    Chandra has imaged the spectacular, glowing remains of exploded stars, and taken spectra showing the dispersal of elements. Chandra has observed the region around the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way, and found black holes across the Universe. Chandra has traced the separation of dark matter from normal matter in the collision of galaxies in a cluster and is contributing to both dark matter and dark energy studies. As its mission continues, Chandra will continue to discover startling new science about our high-energy Universe. Follow us on Facebook and Twitter. More

Chandra's elliptical orbit takes the spacecraft to an altitude of approximately 139,000 km (86,500 mi) -- more than a third of the distance to the Moon. Find out the current position of Chandra in relation to the surface of the Earth from NASA/JPL's Eyes on the 雷霆加速器官网. Our Satellite Tracking Tutorial also shows you just what the Chandra orbit looks like.

Operating in space since 1999, Chandra detects and images X-ray sources that lie within our Solar System to those billions of light years away. The results from Chandra help explore high-energy phenomena and provide insights into the Universe's structure and evolution. More

Current Chandra Location
Learn about Chandra
Chandra
NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory is a telescope specially designed to detect X-ray emission from very hot regions of the Universe such as exploded stars, clusters... More
Learn about Milky Way
Milky Way
Today we know that the Milky Way is our home galaxya vast rotating spiral of gas, dust, and hundreds of billions of stars. The Sun and its planetary system formed... More
Learn about Solar System
Solar System
One Star, eight planets, and a myriad of moons, comets, and asteroids. This is the Earth's local neighborhood known as the Solar System... More
Learn about Galaxies
Galaxies
There are billions of galaxies throughout the Universe and they come in different shapes and sizes. Within these galaxies are black holes, neutron stars, and... More
Learn about Supernovas
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Supernovas are some of the most dramatic events in the cosmos. These titanic events send shock waves rumbling through space and create giant bubbles of... More
Learn about Galaxy Clusters
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Galaxy clusters are the largest objects in the Universe held together by gravity. Chandra detects the superheated gas that fills the space between the hundreds and... More
Learn about Black Holes
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If a star has three times or more the mass of the Sun and collapses, it can form a black hole. These bizarre objects are found across the Universe -- within double... More
Learn about Cosmology
Cosmology
Most of the Universe is dark. The protons, neutrons and electrons that make up the stars, planets and us represent only a small fraction of the mass and energy of... More
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  • What is a Light year?
  • What is a Black Hole?
  • What is a Supernova?
  • What is Dark Matter?
  • What is Dark Energy?

The Observatory has three major parts: (1) the X-ray telescope, whose mirrors focus X-rays from celestial objects; (2) the science instruments which record the X-rays so that X-ray images can be produced and analyzed; and (3) the spacecraft, which provides the environment necessary for the telescope and the instruments to work.

Chandra's unusual orbit was achieved after deployment by a built-in propulsion system which boosted the observatory to a high Earth orbit. This orbit, which has the shape of an ellipse, takes the spacecraft more than a third of the way to the moon before returning to its closest approach to the Earth of 9,942 miles. 78加速器官网

Chandra Spacecraft

A new form of radiation was discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen, a German physicist. He called it X-radiation to denote its unknown nature. This mysterious radiation had the ability to pass through many materials that absorb visible light. X-rays also have the ability to knock electrons loose from atoms. Over the years these exceptional properties have made X-rays useful in many fields, such as medicine and research into the nature of the atom.

Eventually, X-rays were found to be another form of light. Light is the by-product of the constant jiggling, vibrating, hurly-burly of all matter. More

X-rays

The word light usually makes one think of the colors of the rainbow or light from the Sun or a lamp. This light, however, is only one type of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation comes in a range of energies, known as the electromagnetic spectrum. The spectrum consists of radiation such as gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared and radio.

Electromagnetic radiation travels in waves, just like waves in an ocean. The energy of the radiation depends on the distance between the crests (the highest points) of the waves, or the wavelength. In general the smaller the wavelength, the higher the energy of the radiation. More

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In astronomy, distances are measured in units of light years, where one light year is the distance that light travels in a year10 trillion kilometers. For historical reasons having to do with measuring distances to nearby stars, professional astronomers use the unit of parsecs, with one parsec being equal to 3.26 light years. More

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If a star has three times or more the mass of the Sun and collapses, it can form a black hole. These bizarre objects are found across the Universe -- within double star systems and at the centers of galaxies where giant black holes grow. X-ray telescopes like Chandra can see superheated matter that is swirling toward the event horizon of a black hole. Chandra has revealed how black holes impact their environments, how they behave, and their role in helping shape the evolution of the cosmos.  More

Black Hole

A supernova is the explosive death of a star, caused by the sudden onset of nuclear burning in a white dwarf star, or gravitational collapse of the core of massive star followed by a shock wave that disrupts the star.

Supernovas are some of the most dramatic events in the cosmos. These titanic events send shock waves rumbling through space and create giant bubbles of gas that have been superheated to millions of degrees. Chandra has captured supernovas and the remnants they've left behind in spectacular X-ray images, helping to determine the energy, composition, and dynamics of these celestial explosions.  More

Supernova

Dark matter is a term used to describe matter that can be inferred to exist from its gravitational effects, but does not emit or absorb detectable amounts of light.

The nature of dark matter is unknown. A substantial body of evidence indicates that it cannot be baryonic matter, i.e., protons and neutrons. The favored model is that dark matter is mostly composed of exotic particles formed when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Such particles, which would require an extension of the so-called Standard Model of elementary particle physics, could be WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles), or axions, or sterile neutrinos.  More

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Dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all space and exerts a negative pressure that causes the universe to expand at an ever-increasing rate.

At the close of the 20th century, our perception of the Universe was jolted. Instead of slowing down after the Big Bang, the expansion of the Universe was found to be accelerating. Was the cosmic acceleration due to Einstein's cosmological constant, a mysterious form of "dark energy," or perhaps a lack of understanding of gravity? The answer is still out there. By studying clusters of galaxies, X-ray astronomy is tackling this question using powerful techniques that are independent of other methods currently being employed or proposed for the future.  More

Dark energy
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Supernovas
Supernovas
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Milky Way Galaxy
Groups of Galaxies
Groups of Galaxies
Normal Stars
Normal Stars
Neutron Stars
Neutron Stars
Normal Galaxies
Normal Galaxies
Cosmology/Deep Field
Cosmology/Deep Field
White Dwarfs
White Dwarfs
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Black Holes
Active Galaxies & Quasars
Active Galaxies & Quasars
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Miscellaneous

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Explore free tools to help you learn and teach more about the Universe that all of us inhabit. Pencil & paper activities, computer-based learning, and other science resources await: Make the Most of Your Universe

Learn About
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Podcast:
A Tour of X-rays From a Newborn Star Hint at Our Sun's Earliest Days
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Press Release:
Black Hole Fails to Do Its Job
Blog
Blog:
Happy Little Accidents: The Happenstance Finding of Obscured Growing Supermassive...
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Print your own 2022 Chandra calendar!
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The Science of X-ray Technology:
What X-ray astronomy has done for us on the ground.

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